This section contains abstracts from medical journals to support your breastfeeding friendly practice.
1. Effect of the suction-swallowing action on orofacial development and growth.
[Article in Spanish]
Lescano de Ferrer A, Varela de Villalba TB.
Cátedra de Integral Niños Area Odontopediatría A y B y Ortodoncia A Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba, Argentina.
INTRODUCTION: All the functions that take place in the oral cavity (sucking, swallowing, mastication and phonation), not only play an important role in stimulating orofacial development and growth but may also alter such growth and affect occlusal development.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this research work was to show the occlusal characteristics of children in the City of Córdoba, Argentina, in relation to their social background. This paper also aimed to show the favorable effect of breastfeeding as a moderator of the biopsychoaffective profile of children, which allows an excellent maxillo-facial growth and favors neuromuscular balance. This work also considered dysfunctional oral habits as predisposing factors which may alter orofacial growth and development, by identifying favorable and unfavorable conditions for occlusal development.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 290 boys and girls aged 5, who belonged to a cohort of CLACYD Study. Statistical data were analyzed using SPSS/ PC 4.0.
RESULTS: 55.2% of the whole group had normal occlusion. No statistically significant differences wer found in relation to social strata (high-middle and low). Regarding malocclusions, the prevalence of overbiting (20.9%) was observed.
CONCLUSION: A higher percentage of children with normal occlusion was found in the group who had been breastfed. Overbiting was the major type of malocclusion in breastfed children (25.3%), while lateral crossbiting prevailed in those fed with bottle (16.9%). As for dysfunctional oral habits, the highest percentage found was related to lingual interposition associated to open biting, presented by children who had been bottle-fed. The data were statistically significant.
2. Comparative study of the craniofacial growth depending on the type of lactation received.
Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2010 Jun;11(2):87-92.
Sánchez-Molins M, Grau Carbó J, Lischeid Gaig C, Ustrell Torrent JM.
Orthodontics Postgraduate Program, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Barcelona, Spain.
AIM: Several organizations consider mother's milk the optimal nutrition source for newborns [AAP, 1998; Gartner et al., 1997; Mohrbacher and Stock, 2002; WHO, 1989]. However, there is little scientific evidence supporting the idea that breastfeeding has a positive influence on the development of the orofacial structures.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study of cases and controls (observational, analytical and retrospective) and lateral teleradiographs of the cranium of 197 patients (106 breast-fed and 91 bottle-fed) were compared. Ricketts, Steiner and McNamara values were used for the cephalometric analysis. Differences between the two groups were analysed by applying the T-test and ANOVA. Statistical significance levels were set at p<0.05. Non-nutritive infantile sucking habits have been compared; differences between the two groups were analysed by applying the Chi-square test.
RESULTS: First, the upper incisors were found to be protruded in the bottle-fed group. Second, subjects belonging to the breast-fed group displayed a brachycephalic mandible arch, while those fed with bottle had a dolichocephalic Steiner mandibular plane. Third, both facial depth and distance of the pogonion to the perpendicular nasion presented a certain tendency to a retruded mandibular bone in the bottle-fed group. And fourth, the frequency of use of dummy and thumb suction were greater in the bottle feed group, without statistical significance.
CONCLUSION: In addition to the multiple advantages that mother's milk offers to newborns, breastfeeding also helps correct orofacial development (not only for the incisors position, but also for the vertical and sagittal relations of the mandible with upper maxillary and cranial basis).